Botany and Plant Pathology Seminar Series
Speaker: Mr. Matthew Andreatta - Department of Botany and Plant Pathology - Purdue University
Topic: The forces driving genome evolution in green plants
When: Wednesday, November 07, 2012 at 3:30 pm in WSLR 116
Abstract:

The duplication of individual genes has long been recognized as an important form of mutation.  However, with the advent of genome-scale sequencing projects we are now realizing that whole genome duplications are an important process shaping genome architecture and eukaryotic biodiversity. As a result there has been a shift from studying simple gene duplication events to the study of larger whole genome duplication events and the associated evolutionary consequence of these whole genome duplication events. Although whole genome duplication events are now widely documented in a number of diverse eukaryotic lineages (animals, fungi, ciliates, and plants), small-scale gene duplications are still likely to play a significant role in shaping genome architecture and evolution of genetic pathways as they occur at a higher frequency and abundance. To understand the mechanisms driving duplication retention, our lab has done a broad scale analysis of duplication events across green plants and identified those genes pairs undergoing potential adaptive and purifying selection. We have also performed a phylogenomic analysis of ~2000 duplicate genes in the Brassicales and identified a set of 25 genes that duplicated before the split of Arabidopsis thaliana and Arabidopsis lyrata and after the divergence of Brassica from the Arabidopsis lineage.   We next used population genetic analyses to investigate the level of variation within and between paralogs and orthologs. Our results suggest smaller recent gene duplication events have short half-lives, where one gene copy of a duplicate pair is lost, nevertheless, these small scale duplications still play an important role in the evolution of genetic pathways.

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