Indiana’s poultry industry represents a diverse group of producers. The state currently ranks at or near the top in a number of poultry categories: Number 1 in duck and egg-type breeders, Number 4 in egg production, Number 7 in turkey production and Number 14 in broiler production. To continue this high degree of success, producers rely on a multitude of services and supplies such as education materials, research and government reports. Many of these resources can be found at Purdue University. If you're interested in seeing a breakdown of current faculty and each research focus, please view this document: Faculty Breakdown.pdf
Poultry faculty and their major research focus are described below.
Dr. Layi Adeola, Department of Animal Sciences
Dr. Adeola's research program emphasizes amino acid nutrition of nonruminant animal species and utilization of plant minerals by nonruminants. The total program is aimed at improving the efficiency of lean meat production in nonruminant animals and minimizing the flow of potentially detrimental levels of nutrients through animal waste to the environment. Currently, he is working on the metabolizable energy values for ducks, because most of the diets employed for ducks were obtained from nutritional studies of domestic chicken. This arises because limited information is available on ducks. The methods are currently being used to provide data on metabolizable energy and amino acid digestibility values on a variety of feed ingredients and byproducts that have the potential of being used as feed ingredients.
Dr. Todd Applegate, Department of Animal Sciences
Work in Dr. Applegate's laboratory includes studies to determine that regardless of egg size, embryos from hens in early lay develop more slowly than embryos from older hens during the final week of incubation. Much of these developmental differences can be attributed to the hen investing proportionately more yolk into the egg as she ages, thereby allowing for a greater mass transfer of yolk lipid into the embryo to support growth. The age of the hen has also been shown to affect intestinal maturity at hatch and has extended effects on glucose homeostasis during the acclimation period immediately after hatch. Continued research is focusing on the most optimal combination of nutrients to ease the hatchling through this critical transition period.
Dr. E.K. Asem, Department of Basic Medical Sciences
The goals of Dr. Asem's laboratory are to understand the mechanisms whereby locally produced bioactive molecules (intraovarian factors) in the regulation of ovarian follicular development and death (atresia). To develop, mature and eventually ovulate, an ovarian follicle must escape atresia or follicular death. After escaping atresia, the follicle must go through prescribed stages of development in order to release a fertilizable egg at ovulation. The processes of follicular atresia and follicular development are tightly regulated by both extraovarian and intraovarian hormones or factors. Greater emphasis has been placed by researchers on the roles of extraovarian regulators (for example pituitary gonadotropins) than on intraovarian factors. His laboratory intends to identify and characterize bioactive molecules in the ovary and demonstrate their physiological roles in follicular development or atresia. They will focus on the components of extracellular matrix proteins (especially components of basement membranes) that participate in the regulation of follicular development and atresia. Results from their studies will identify and explain the roles of intraovarian factors in the functions of the ovary. Moreover, these results will explain how the extraovarian and intraovarian factors interact to control ovarian function.
Dr. Heng-wei Cheng, Livestock Behavior Research Unit, USDA-ARS, and Department of Animal Sciences
The goal of Dr. Cheng's research is to study the cellular and molecular mechanisms of stressor-induced neuronal plasticity and behavioral adaptation and to develop quantitative indicators of animal well-being. Works in Dr. Cheng’s laboratory includes studies 1) To develop intervention strategies for increasing heat tolerance in poultry, especially to determine if cooled perches improve thermal comfort and welfare for caged hens during hot weather; and 2) to prevent feather pecking and aggression in poultry by modification of the serotonergic system.
Dr. Kevin Hannon, Department of Basic Medical Sciences
Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are powerful regulators of bone and skeletal muscle development in vitro. The effects that these locally-made fibroblast growth factors exert on bone and skeletal muscle development is unknown. Therefore, a major goal of Dr. Hannon's research is to understand the importance of endogenously made fibroblast growth factors for control of long bone and skeletal muscle development in vivo. To address this goal, they are utilizing an avian-specific retroviral expression system. This system allows them to create a transgenic chicken by genetically regulating fibroblast growth factor expression in bone and skeletal muscle in ovo. They can then directly address the significance of each member of the fibroblast growth factor family for normal tissue growth and development. They have recently found that reducing the amount of fibroblast growth factor activity significantly retards the growth of skeletal muscle in developing chickens. This type of research has the potential to provide novel strategies towards improving growth and development in avian species. The retroviral expression system we use is also currently under refinement. Therefore, any research involving this procedure may also spawn potential practical strategies for clinical/commercial gene transfer in avian or mammalian species.
Dr. Albert J. Heber, Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering
Presently, Dr. Heber is evaluating turkey production facilities in southern Indiana to investigate the current ventilation strategies utilized for brooder and growout facilities and to discuss ventilation issues with the production staff. Ventilation strategies vary between and within companies. As compared to chicken and hog house ventilation, turkey house ventilation in southern Indiana has a greater use of manual controls and lower capital investment in environmental control equipment. It is apparently very important to keep ventilation controls simple so the growers can understand and operate them. Several lessons were learned during these investigations relating to size of sidewall openings, temperature controllers, control of ammonia, ridge ventilation, insulation levels and bird behavior.
Dr. Patricia (Scotti) Hester, Department of Animal Sciences
Work in Dr. Hester’s laboratory has shown that mechanical loading achieved through perching has beneficial effects on pullet and laying hen health by stimulating leg muscle deposition and increasing bone mineralization. Thermal perches as a means of cooling laying hens during hot weather is a current pursuit in Dr. Hester’s laboratory.
Dr. T.L. Lin, Department of Veterinary Pathology and Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory
Turkey poult enteritis has contributed to significant economic losses in the turkey industry in Indiana for the last several years. Turkey poult enteritis, apparently due to a viral etiology, causes several diarrhea, weight loss, uneven flock growth, and mortality. A better understanding of the etiology, pathogenesis, pathology, immune responses, and molecular characteristics of the viral pathogen associated with turkey poult enteritis is the key to effective diagnosis, control, and prevention of this disease. The research is focused on: (1) characterization of turkey poult enteritis, (2) identification and characterization of the etiological agent causing turkey poult enteritis, (3) investigation of the specific humoral and cellular immune responses (4) development of immunological or molecular biological assays for viral antigen identification and antibody detection, and (5) study and comparison of molecular characteristics of different isolates from Indiana and other states. These studies will generate useful information for the development of sensitive and specific molecular biologically or immunologically based diagnostic assays for turkey poult enteritis as well as the construction of effective vaccines to protect turkey poults from this disease.
Dr. Maja Makagon, Department of Animal Sciences
Dr. Makagon’s research program focuses on interplay between the behavior, welfare and management of poultry, including ducks, turkeys, laying hens and broilers. Work conducted in Dr. Makagon’s laboratory centers on 3 topic areas: 1) assessing the effects of the physical and social environments on bird behavior, 2) evaluating the relationship between behavior and bone integrity, and 3) developing and validating practical, species-specific welfare assessment measures. A common goal of this work is to develop strategies to help minimize behavior-related poultry management issues while optimizing bird welfare and production.
Dr. William M. Muir, Department of Animal Sciences
Dr. Muir conducted a study where chickens were selected for improved livability and egg production over a 12-year period (6 generations). Birds were selected on the basis of group performance of half-sib families housed in either 9- or 12-bird cages. Although selection was consistently based on performance of the group, to either 60 or 72 weeks of age, the trait of selection changed over the generations from egg mass (EM) per bird housed to a non-optimal index giving equal weight to eggs per hen per day (EHD) and total days survival (DS). In generation 7, selected (S), control (C), and commercial (X) lines were housed in either single- or 12-bird cages. Birds were not beak-trimmed and lights during the laying period were set to high intensity. Birds which died were replaced with extra birds of the same line. Performance was measured from 20 to 58 weeks of age. The residual record from 59 to 72 weeks of age was projected by linear regression.
Dr. John A. Patterson, Department of Animal Sciences
Currently, the main focus of Dr. Patterson's research is identifying factors affecting microbial interactions and manipulation of intestinal microbial populations to enhance animal performance, animal health, human food safety and to reduce excretion of environmental pollutants and odors. It is becoming increasingly clear that the types and activities of microbes in the intestinal tract can have dramatic effects on the animal and on environmental pollution. The predominant microbial population acts to inhibit colonization and infection by pathogens. Increasing the numbers of certain bacterial groups (lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, etc.) has been shown to frequently improve animal performance and health. One can enhance numbers of specific microbial populations either by adding the microorganisms in the feed (prebiotic) or by feeding the animal a substrate that selectively enriches for that microbial population in the intestinal tract (prebiotic). Dr. Patterson's laboratory has performed a number of experiments to determine the effect on animal performance. They have used broilers, ducks and weanling pigs in these experiments. Currently they are examining the efficacy of reducing pathogens (salmonella) in market animals to improve human food safety. They are also examining the effect of feeding a number of compounds on odor production in the intestine and in simulated pit systems.
Dr. Pat Wakenell, Department of Comparative Pathobiology
Dr. Wakenell is an associate professor of Avian Diagnostics at Purdue University's College of Veterinary Medicine and an Avian Diagnostic Pathologist at the Animal Disease and Diagnostic Laboratory. She is involved with eduation and outreach efforts and works with both commercial and backyard poultry owners to improve flock health.
Additional On and Off-Campus Poultry Faculty and Staff:
- Fredrick Haan, ASREC - Poultry Unit
- Doug Akers, Purdue Cooperative Extension
- Kenneth Eck, Purdue Cooperative Extension
- Doug Kennan, Purdue Cooperative Extension
- Dr. Stephen Hooser, Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory
- Donna Schrader, Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory
- Dr. William Wigel, Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory
- Dr. Tom Bryan, Heeke Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory (SIPAC)
- Mark Straw, Indiana State Egg Board