Todd J. Applegate - Poultry Nutritional Physiology Laboratory



Grenier, B. and T.J. Applegate2013Invited Review - Modulation of intestinal functions upon mycotoxin ingestion: meta-analysis of published experiments in animalsToxins. 5:396-430mycotoxin, gastrointestinal tract, nutrients, gut permeability, mucosal immunity, gut microbiota
Jiang, Z., A.C. Lossie, and T.J. Applegate2013Molecular cloning, alternative splicing and developmental expression of chicken intestinal MUC2PLoS One. 8:e53781. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0053781chicken, mucus, mucin, intestine, MUC2
Harrison, J., R. White, V. Ishler, G. Erickson, A. Sutton, T. Applegate, B. Richert, T. Nennich, R. Koelsch, R. Burns, D. Meyer, R. Massey, and G. Carpenter2012Case Study: Implementation of feed management as part of whole farm nutrient managementProf. Anim. Sci. 28:364-369extension, feed management, nutrient management plan
Reisinger, N., A. Ganner, S. Masching, G. Schatzmayr, and T.J. Applegate2012Efficacy of a yeast derivative on broiler performance, intestinal morphology and blood profileLivestock Sci. 143:195-200Blood cells, Broiler performance, Intestnial morphology, Yeast derivative
Rochell, S.J., T.J. Applegate, E.J. Kim, and W.A. Dozier, III2012Effects of diet type and ingredient composition on rate of passage and standardized ileal amino acid digestibility in broiler chicksPoult. Sci. 91:1647-1653rate of passage, ingredient composition, broiler
Romero, C., E. Onyango, W. Powers, R. Angel, and T.J. Applegate2012Effect of a partial replacement of limestone by a CaSO4-zeolite mixture combined with a slight protein reduction on production indices, egg quality and excreta pH in laying hensJ. Appl. Poult. Res. 21:325–334calcium sulfate, dietary protein, egg quality, laying hen, zeolite
Romero, C., M.E. Abdallah, W. Powers, R. Angel, and T.J. Applegate2012Effect of dietary adipic acid and corn dried distillers grains with solubles on laying hen performance and nitrogen loss from stored excreta with or without sodium bisulfatePoult. Sci. 91:1149-1157adipic acid, dried distillers grains plus solubles, laying hen, nitrogen loss, sodium bisulfite
Van Whye, R., T.J. Applegate, M.S. Lilburn, and D.M. Karcher2012A comparison of long bone development in historical and contemporary ducksPoult. Sci. 91:2858–2865bone, duck, mineralization, tibia, femur
Adedokun, S.A., O. Adeola, C. Parsons, M.S. Lilburn, and T.J. Applegate2011Factors affecting endogenous amino acid flow in chickens and the need for consistency in methodology (review)Poult. Sci. 90:1737-1748amino acid, endogenous amino acid flow, nitrogen-free diet, poultry, standardization
Jiang, Z., A.C. Lossie, and T.J. Applegate2011Evolution of trefoil factor(s): Genetic and spatio-temporal expression of trefoil factor 2 in the chicken (Gallus Gallus Domesticus)PLoS One. 6(7): e22691. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0022691chicken, trefoil factor, intestine, evolution
Kim, E.J., P.L. Utterback, T.J. Applegate, and C.M. Parsons2011Comparison of amino acid digestibility of several feedstuffs determined with the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay and the ileal amino acid digestibility chick assayPoult. Sci. 90:2511–2519amino acid digestibility, corn, distillers dried grains, meat and bone meal, chicken
Liu, Z., W. Powers, D. Karcher, R. Angel, and T.J. Applegate2011Effect of amino acid formulation and supplementation on nutrient mass balance in turkeysPoult. Sci. 90:1153–1161turkey, diet, excretion, retention
Liu, Z., W. Powers, R. Angel, D. Karcher, and T. Applegate2011Effect of amino acid formulation and supplementation on air emissions from turkeysTrans. ASABE. 54(2):617-628Ammonia, Crude protein, Diet, GHG, Poultry
Reisinger, N., T. Steiner, S. Nitsch, G. Schatzmayr, and T.J. Applegate2011Effects of a blend of essential oils on broiler performance and intestinal morphology during a mild coccidial vaccine challengeJ. Appl. Poult. Res. 20:272-283broiler, coccidial vaccine, essential oil, intestinal morphology
Xu, L., S. Eicher, and T.J. Applegate2011Effect of increasing dietary concentrations of corn naturally-contaminated with deoxynivalenol on broiler and turkey poult performance and response to LPSPoult. Sci. 90:2766–2774deoxynivalenol, lipopolysaccharide, broiler, turkey, innate immunity
Applegate, T.J., V. Klose, T. Steiner, A. Ganner, and G. Schatzmayr2010Probiotics and phytogenics for poultry: myth or reality?J. Appl. Poult. Res. 19:194-210 (invited review)competitive exclusion, essential oil,  feed additive, phytogenic extract, poultry, probiotic
Horn, N.L., J.S. Radcliffe, T.J. Applegate, and O. Adeola2010Gut morphology and nutrient retention responses of broiler chicks and white pekin ducklings to dietary threonine deficiencyCan. J. Anim. Sci. 90:513-520Broiler, Duckling, Nutrient retention, Threonine
Jiang, Z., M. Mohln, G. Schatzmayr, and T.J. Applegate2010Net effect of an acute phase response - partial alleviation with probiotic supplementationPoult. Sci. 89:28-33acute phase response, broiler, lipopolysaccharide, probiotic
Wu-Haan, W., W. Powers, R. Angel, and T. J. Applegate2010Dried grains plus solubles as a feed ingredient on air emissions and performance from laying hensPoult. Sci. 89:1355-1359ammonia, distillers dried grains plus solubles,  hydrogen sulfide, laying hen, egg production
Adedokun, S.A., C.M. Parsons, M.S. Lilburn, O. Adeola, T.J. Applegate2009Endogenous amino acid flow in broilers, laying hens and caecectomised roostersBrit. Poult. Sci. 50:359-365EAA flow, broiler, laying hen, caecectomized rooster, NFD, HDP
Adedokun, S.A., C.M. Parsons, M.S. Lilburn, O. Adeola, T.J. Applegate2009Comparison of amino acid digestibility of feed ingredients in broilers, laying hens, and caecectomised roostersBrit. Poult. Sci. 50:350-358animo acid digestibility, broiler, laying hen, caecectomized rooster
Applegate, T.J., C. Troche, Z. Jiang, and T. Johnson2009The nutritional value of high-protein corn distillers dried grains for broiler chickens and its effect on nutrient excretionPoult. Sci. 88:354-359broiler, corn, high-protein distillers dried grain, manure nitrogen
Applegate, T.J., E. Onyango, R. Angel, and W.J. Powers2009Effect of amino acid formulation and dietary probiotic supplementation on egg production and egg characteristics in laying hensJ. Appl. Poult. Res. 18:552-561amino acid, direct-fed microbial, egg production, laying hen
Applegate, T.J., G. Schatzmayr, K. Prickel, C. Troche, and Z. Jiang2009Effect of aflatoxin culture on intestinal function and nutrient loss in laying hensPoult. Sci. 88:1235-1241aflatoxin, energy, laying hen, mucin
Horn, N.L, S.S. Donkin, T.J. Applegate, and O. Adeola2009Intestinal mucin dynamics response of broiler chicks and white Pekin ducklings to dietary threoninePoult. Sci. 88:1906-1914broiler, duckling, mucin, threonine
Karcher, D.M., J.N. Fleming-Waddell, and T.J. Applegate2009Developmental changes in insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and II mRNA abundance in extra-embryonic membranes and small intestine of avian embryosGrowth Horm. IGF Res. 19:31-42Chicken, Duck, Turkey,  IGF-I,  IGF-II, Small intestine, Embryo
Pang, Y., J.A. Patterson, and T.J. Applegate2009The influence of copper concentration and source on ileal microbiotaPoult. Sci. 88: 586-592chicken, copper, Escherichia coli, lactobacilli, intestinal microbiota
Adedokun, S.A., O. Adeola, C.M. Parsons, M.S. Lilburn, and T.J. Applegate2008Standardized ileal amino acid digestibility of plant feedstuffs in broiler chickens and turkey poults using a nitrogen-free or casein dietPoult. Sci. 87:2535-2548amino acid, broiler chick, endogenous amino acid, standardized ilial digestibility, turkey poult
Applegate, T.J., S.A. Adedokun, W. Powers, and R. Angel2008Determination of nutrient mass balance in turkeysPoult. Sci. 87:2477-2485mass balance, nitrogen, nutrient excretion, phosphorus, turkey
Applegate, T.J., W. Powers, R. Angel, and D. Hoehler2008Effect of amino acid formulation and amino acid supplementation on performance and nitrogen excretion in turkey tomsPoult. Sci. 87:514-520amino acid, crude protein, litter, nitrogen, turkey tom
Burkholder, K.M., K.L. Thompson, M.E. Einstein, T.J. Applegate, and J.A. Patterson2008Influence of stressors on normal intestinal microbiota, intestinal morphology and susceptibility to Salmonella Enteriditis colonization in broilersPoult. Sci. 87:1734-1741broiler, heat stress, Salmonella Enteritidis, intestinal microbiota, intestinal morphology
Karcher, D.M., and T.J. Applegate2008Survey of enterocyte morphology and tight junction formation in the small intestine of avian embryosPoult. Sci. 87:339-350chicken, duck turkey, small intestine, tight junction
Thompson, K., K. Burkholder, J. Patterson, T.J. Applegate2008Microbial ecology shifts in the ileum of broilers during feed withdrawal and dietary manipulationsPoult. Sci. 87:1624-1632antibiotic, broiler, copper sulfate, feed withdrawal, microbiota
Adedokun, S.A., C.M. Parsons, M.S. Lilburn, O. Adeola, and T.J. Applegate2007Standardized ileal amino acid digestibility of meat and bone meal from different sources in broiler chicks and turkey poults with a nitrogen-free or casein dietPoult. Sci. 86:2598-2607chicken, ileal endogenous amino acid, meat and bone meal, poult, standardized ileal digestibility
Adedokun, S.A., C.M. Parsons, M.S. Lilburn, O. Adeola, and T.J. Applegate2007Comparison of ileal endogenous amino acid flows in broiler chicks and turkey poultsPoult. Sci. 86:1682-1689broiler chick, casein, ileal endogenous amino acid, nitrogen-free diet, turkey poult
Adedokun, S.A., C.M. Parsons, M.S. Lilburn, O. Adeola, T.J. Applegate2007Endogenous amino acid flow in broiler chicks is affected by the age of birds and method of estimationPoult. Sci. 86:2590-2597casein, chick, endogenous amino acid flow, nitrogen-free diet, regression
Adedokun, S.A., M.S. Lilburn, C.M. Parsons, O. Adeola, and T.J. Applegate2007Effect of age and method on ileal endogenous amino acid flow in turkey poultsPoult. Sci. 86:1948-1954casein, endogenous amino acid flow, nitrogen-free diet, regression, turkey poult
Pang, Y., and T.J. Applegate2007Effects of dietary copper supplementation and copper source on digesta pH, calcium, zinc and copper complex size in the gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickensPoult. Sci. 86: 531-537chicken, copper, intestinal pH, solubility, zinc
Walsh, M.C., K.L. Saddoris, D.M. Sholly, R.B. Hinson, A.L. Sutton, T.J. Applegate, B.T. Richert, J.S. Radcliffe2007The effects of direct fed microbials delivered through the feed and/or in a bolus at weaning on growth performance and gut healthLivestock Sci. 108:254-257pig, direct-fed microbial, antibiotics 
Wu-Haan, W., W.J. Powers, C.R. Angel, C.E. Hale, III, and T.J. Applegate2007Nutrient digestibility and mass balance in laying hens fed a commercial or acidifying dietPoult. Sci. 86: 684-690laying hen, nitrogen, sulfur, mass balance, retention
Wu-Haan, W., W.J. Powers, C.R. Angel, C.E. Hale, III, and T.J. Applegate2007Effect of an acidifying diet combined with zeolite and slight protein reduction on air emissions from laying hens of different agesPoult. Sci. 86:182-190hen, air emission, diet, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide
Angel, R., W.W. Saylor, A.D. Mitchell, W. Powers, and T.J. Applegate2006Effect of dietary phosphorus, phytase, and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol on broiler chicken bone mineralization, litter phosphorus, and processing yieldsPoult. Sci. 85:1200-1211nonphytin phosphorus, phytase, bone mineralization, processing plant, litter phosphorus
Leytem, A.B., D.R. Smith, T.J. Applegate, and P.A. Thacker2006The influence of manure phytic acid on phosphorus solubility in calcareous soilsSoil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 70:1629-1638manure, phosphorus transfer, phosphorus soil solubility 
Pang, Y. and T.J. Applegate2006Effects of copper source and concentration on in vitro phytate phosphorus hydrolysis by phytaseJ. Ag. Food. Chem. 54:1792-1796copper source, phytate phosphorus, phytase, solubility
Thompson, K.L., and T.J. Applegate2006Feed withdrawal alters small intestinal morphology and mucus of broilersPoult. Sci. 85:1535-1540broiler, feed withdrawal, intsetine, morphology
Angel, C.R., W.J. Powers, T.J. Applegate, N.M. Tamim, and M.C. Christman2005Influence of phytase on water-soluble phosphorus in poultry and swine manure.J. Environ. Qual. 34:563-571. (Cover article)manure, poultry, swine, phosphorus, phytase
Angel, R., W.W. Saylor, A.S. Dhandu, W. Powers, and T.J. Applegate2005Effect of dietary phosphorus, phytase, and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol on performance of broiler chickens grown in floor pensPoult. Sci. 84:1031-1044broiler, nonphytin phosphorus, phytase, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol
Applegate, T.J.2005The nutritional value of dehulled-degermed corn for broiler chickens and its impact on nutrient excretionPoult. Sci.  84:742-747broiler, corn, dry matter, manure phosphorus
Applegate, T.J., D.M. Karcher, and M.S. Lilburn2005Comparative development of the small intestine in the turkey poult and Pekin ducklingPoult. Sci.  84:426-431duck, poult, small intestine, villus
Karcher, D.M., J.P. McMurtry, and T.J. Applegate2005Developmental changes in amniotic and allantoic fluid insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and -II concentrations of avian embryosComp. Biochem. Physiol. A.  142:404-409amnion, chicken, duck, insulin-like growth factors, turkey
Maguire, R.O., J.T. Sims, and T.J. Applegate2005Phytase supplementation and reduced-phosphorus turkey diets reduce phosphorus loss in runoff following litter applicationJ. Environ. Qual. 34:359-369litter, phosphorus runoff, turkey
Potturi, P.V., J.A. Patterson, and T.J. Applegate2005The effects of delayed placement on intestinal characteristics turkey poultsPoult. Sci.  84:816-824apoptosis, enterocyte proliferation, intestinal villi, poultq, salmonella
Powers, W.J., C.R. Angel, and T.J. Applegate2005Air emissions in poultry production: current challenges and future directionsJ. Appl. Poult. Res. 14:613-621. (invited review)air emissions, ammonia, poultry, mass balance, particulate
Roberson, K.D., J.L. Kalbfleisch, W. Pan, T.J. Applegate, and D.S. Rosenstein2005Comparison of wheat bran phytase and a commercially available phytase on turkey tom performance and litter phosphorus contentIntl. J. Poult. Sci. 4: 244-249phytase, turkey toms, growth performance, skeletal integrity, phosphorus
Rush, J.K., C.R. Angel, K.M. Banks, K.L. Thompson, and T.J. Applegate2005Effect of dietary calcium and vitamin D3 on calcium and phosphorus retention in white Pekin ducklingsPoult. Sci. 84:561-570calcium, phytate,  phosphorus, phytase, vitamin D-3
Thompson, K.L., Z. Kounev, J.A. Patterson, and T.J. Applegate2005Performance and nutrient retention responses of broilers to dietary oxyhalogenic and ionic saltsPoult. Sci. 84:238-247broiler, nutrient retention, salicylate, sodium chlorate
Banks, K.M., K.L. Thompson, J.K. Rush, and T.J. Applegate2004The effects of copper source on phosphorus retention in broiler chicks and laying hensPoult. Sci. 83:990-996broiler, copper source, laying hen, phosphorus
Banks, K.M., K.L. Thompson, P. Jaynes, and T.J. Applegate2004The effects of copper on the efficacy of phytase, growth, and phosphorus retention in broiler chicksPoult. Sci. 83:1335-1341broiler, copper, phosphorus, phytase, phytin phosphorus
Maguire, R.O., J.T. Sims, W.W. Saylor, B.L. Turner, R. Angel, and T.J. Applegate2004Influence of phytase addition to poultry diets on phosphorus forms and solubility in litters and amended soilsJ. Environ. Qual. 33:2306-2316phosphorus, litter, poultry 
Applegate, T.J., B.C. Joern, D.L. Nussbaum-Wagler, and R. Angel2003Water soluble phosphorus in fresh broiler litter is dependent upon phosphorus concentration fed but not on fungal phytase supplementationPoult. Sci.  82:1024-1029broiler, litter, low phytate corn, phosphorus, phytase
Applegate, T.J., D.M. Webel, and X.G. Lei2003Efficacy of phytase derived from Escherichia coli and expressed in yeast on phosphorus utilization and bone mineralization in turkey poultsPoult. Sci. 82:1726-1732bone ash, phytase, phosphorus, turkey poult
Applegate, T.J., R. Angel, and H.L. Classen2003Effect of dietary calcium, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol, or bird strain on small intestinal phytase activity in broiler chickensPoult. Sci. 82:1140-1148calcium, 25-dihydroxycolecalciferol, intestine, phytase, phytate
Angel, R., N.M. Tamim, T.J. Applegate, A.S. Dhandu, L.E. Ellestad2002Phytic acid chemistry: influence on phytin-phosphorus availability and phytase efficacyJ. Applied Poult. Res.11:471-480. (invited review)phytin-phosphorus, phytase, availability, phosphorus excretion
Applegate, T.J.2002Reproductive maturity of turkey hens: egg composition, embryonic growth, and hatchling transitionAvian Poultry Biol. Rev. 13:31-41. (invited review)egg, embryo, hen, poult, reproduction, turkey
Applegate, T.J. and M.S. Lilburn2002Growth of the femur and tibia of a commercial broiler linePoult. Sci. 81:1289-1294broiler, body weight, skeletal growth, tibia, femur
Applegate, T.J. and M.S. Lilburn1999Effect of turkey breeder hen age and egg size on poult development. 1. Intestinal growth and glucose tolerance of the turkey poultComp. Biochem. Physiol. B 124:371-380turkey, poult, egg weight, glucose, hen age, small intestine
Applegate, T.J., E. Ladwig, L. Weissert, and M.S. Lilburn1999Effect of hen age on intestinal development and glucose tolerance of the Pekin ducklingPoult. Sci. 78:1485-1492hen age, duckling, glucose, small intestine
Applegate, T.J., J.J. Dibner, M.L. Kitchell, Z. Uni, and M.S. Lilburn1999Effect of turkey breeder hen age and egg size on poult development. 2. Intestinal villus growth, enterocyte migration and proliferation of the turkey poultComp. Biochem Physiol. B 124:381-389turkey, egg weight, hen age, poult, intestine, villus, enterocyte
Turner, K.A., T.J. Applegate, and M.S. Lilburn1999Effects of feeding high carbohydrate or fat diets. 2. Apparent digestibility and apparent metabolizable energy of the posthatch poultPoult. Sci. 78:1581-1587poult, fat, carbohydrate, digestibility, medium-chain triglyceride
Turner, K.A., T.J. Applegate, and M.S. Lilburn1999Effects of feeding high carbohydrate or high fat diets. 1. Growth and metabolic status of the posthatch poult following immediate or delayed access to feedPoult. Sci. 78:1573-1580poult, fat, carbohydrate, delayed placement, glycogen
Applegate, T.J. and M.S. Lilburn1998Effect of hen age, body weight, and age at photostimulation. 2. Embryonic characteristics of commercial turkeysPoult. Sci.  77:439-444turkey, hen age, embryo, lipid, yolk sac
Applegate, T.J., and M.S. Lilburn1998Effect of hen age, body weight, and age at photostimulation. 1. Egg, incubation, and poult characteristics of commercial turkeysPoult. Sci. 77:433-438turkey, poult, egg weight, glucose, hen age, small intestine
Applegate, T.J., D. Harper, and M.S. Lilburn1998Effect of hen production age on egg composition and embryo development in commercial Pekin ducksPoult. Sci. 77:1608-1612duck, hen age, egg, embryo, yolk sac
Applegate, T.J., W.L. Bacon, and M.S. Lilburn1997Effect of age and body weight on plasma concentrations of luteinizing hormone in turkey hens before and after photostimulationDom. Anim. Endocrinol.  14(6):391-398turkey, hen luteinizing hormone, photostimulation
Applegate, T.J. and J.L. Sell1996Effect of dietary linoleic to linolenic acid ratio and vitamin E supplementation on vitamin E status of poultsPoult. Sci. 75:881-890poult vitamin E, fatty acids, liver, cerebellum
Applegate, T.J. and M.S. Lilburn1996Independent effects of hen age and egg size on incubation and poult characteristics in commercial turkeysPoult. Sci. 75:1210-1216hen age, egg size, poultry, yolk sac, lipid